Acts of terrorism are intended to have an impact far beyond the death and destruction of the immediate attack. Mass fear and interruptions to normal daily functioning occur in the aftermath of terrorist attacks, like concentric surges that erupt when dropping a boulder in a mill pond. When terrorism and violence are systemically directed toward “ethnic cleansing” or intentional destruction of a national, ethnic, racial, tribal, or religious group, it is considered genocide. Terrorism and genocide can also disrupt the social and economic functioning of neighboring countries that must contend with refugees. National and international bodies that choose to counteract terrorism and genocide with economic sanctions, military actions, or humanitarian interventions can also face repercussions. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecosystemic Model for Crisis (James, 2013, p. 657) illustrates the following: that which impacts the international macrosystem (e.g., world culture, United Nations, international media) affects the mesosystems (e.g., neighborhoods, churches, police) and microsystems (e.g., individuals, families), as well.
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