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The rigor associated with research differs between qualitative and quantitative research. In quantitative research a study is rigorous when it is reliable and valid. The researcher must maintain adherence to the procedure during data collection and analysis (Lohfield, 2018). Reliability is the degree to which a research instrument produces consistent results. There are a few different methods to test reliability. Stability reliability is tested using test-retest, where the same concept is is tested with the same instrument over time to see if it yields the same results. Equivalence reliability is tested by inter-rater reliability, which is when two people judge their equvalence, and alternate forms, which is a comparison of two instruments to determine their equivalence. Internal consistency is mainly used with scales as a meausuring concept.  Validity is how accurate an instrument is at measuring what it is trying to measure. There are four types of validity. Face validity is just looking at the instrument to determine if it looks legitamate. Content validity looks to see if the method has all of the main components ncessary to measure whatever is being measured. Construct validity determines whether the instrument measures the theoretical component it is meant to measure. Criterion related validity is used when a score on a test can be used to predict the persons performance in a different situation.

In qualitative research, maintatining trustworthiness is key to a rigorous study. Trustworthiness is the analogous for rigor in qualitative research (Amankwaa, 2016). Trustowrthiness involves establishing credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. the researcher must also have self awareness, because qualitative research involves interpreting findings, and this may be affected by a researchers biases.

To ensure trustworthiness, I think a researcher having a lot of knowledge of themselves and being aware of this when interpreting data would be key to keep their study rigorous. to increase validity, a researcher should make sure they have a very good research tool. To increase reliability, it is best to use a large sample size in the study.

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Amankwaa, L. (2016). Creating Protocols for Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research . Journal of Cultural Diversity, 23(3), 121-127

Lohfield, L. (2012). Testing the validity of a scenerio based questionnaire to assess the ethical sensitvity of undergraduate medical students. Medical Teacher, 34(8), 635-642.

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